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Since many years Pulsus has also been very instrumental to provide an invaluable channel for scientists and researchers to exchange ideas and research by creating a forum for discussing the possibilities of future collaborations between universities, institutions, research bodies and organizations from different countries through international conferences and meetings.
PULSUS proudly invites all the participants and contributors across the globe to attend Annual Congress on Mycology during November 16-17, 2017 at Atlanta, USA. Mycology Conference strives to bring renowned mycologists, research scientists, professors, Deans and Directors, President and chair of Associations and Societies, Industrialists, Pharmaceutical Industries, Healthcare Industries Medical and Industrial professions, young researchers, students and Business delegates under a single roof providing an opportunity to share the knowledge and scientific progress in the field Mycology shaping the future research. Mycology has become certainly one of the most dynamic and innovative subjects in the field of research. The main aim of this meeting is to exchange new scientific and clinical data in the field of Mycology uniting among the specialists, doctors, researchers, and other partnered wellbeing experts under one rooftop.
Highlighting 2 days of scientific workshops, special sessions, speaker & poster sessions, and Industrial Expo.250+ attendees from all over the world.
Track 1: Molecular Mycology
Fungal diseases are significant causes of mortality and morbidity in both the developed and the developing world. The recent increases in the incidence and severity of invasive fungal infections are directly attributable to new susceptible patient populations. Examples of these large, at-risk populations include patients with AIDS; hospitalized patients being treated for cancer and autoimmune disorders; andthose receiving organ transplants. Despite this increasing threat, our understanding of the basic pathophysiology of fungal disease lags far behind our understanding of bacterial, parasitic and viral diseases. Furthermore, the number of antifungal therapies in clinical use is limited, and there is a paucity of novel antifungal strategies in the current drug pipeline.
Track 2: Medical and Clinical Mycology
Medical mycology is the study of pathogenic fungi and fungal diseases, excluding a few dermatophytes, pathogenicity among the fungi is not necessary for the maintenance or dissemination of the species. Most fungi are mesophilic and cannot grow at normal body temperature. Similarly, most fungi are saprophytic and their enzymatic pathways function more efficiently at the redox potential of non-living substrates than at the relatively more reduced state of living metabolizing tissue. In addition, the body has a highly efficient set of cellular defences to combat fungal proliferation. Thus, the basic mechanism of fungal pathogenicity is its ability to adapt to the tissue environment and to withstand the lytic activity of the host's cellular defences. In general, the development of human mycoses is related primarily to the immunological status of the host and environmental exposure, rather than to the infecting organism. A small number of fungi have the ability to cause infections in normal healthy humans by having a unique enzymatic capacity, exhibiting thermal dimorphism and by having an ability to block the cell-mediated immune defences of the host. There are then many "opportunistic" fungi which cause infections almost exclusively in debilitated patients whose normal defence mechanisms are impaired. The organisms involved are cosmopolitan fungi which have a very low inherent virulence. More recently described mycoses of this category include hyalohyphomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis.
Track 3: Fungal Genetics
Fungal genetics is the study of the mechanisms of inherited data in fungi. Yeasts and filament like fungi are extensively used as model organisms for eukaryotic genetic analysis, as well as cell cycle regulation, chromatin granule structure, genetic recombination and gene regulation. Genetic analysis has provided necessary data concerning genes, heredity, metabolism, genetic mechanisms, physiology, and development in fungi, and in higher organisms generally, as a result of in certain respects the fungal life cycle and cellular attributes are ideally suited to each pathologist and molecular genetic analysis. Fungi possess strikingly totally different morphologies that embrace giant, fleshy, and sometimes colorful mushrooms or toadstools, thread like organisms barely visible to the eye, and cellular organisms like yeasts. Molds are necessary agents of decay. They conjointly turn out a large variety of industrially vital compounds like antibiotics, organic acids, enzymes, ancient foods like softening and flavored of cheese, etc., and a variety of different miscellaneous product e.g. gibberellins, ergot alkaloids, steroid bioconversions.
Track 4: Fungal Ecology
Fungi are usually classified in four divisions such as the Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. The shape and internal structure of the sporangia, which produce the spores, are the most useful character for identifying these various major groups. There are also another two conventional groups which are not recognized as formal taxonomic groups i.e. they are polyphyletic, these are the Deuteromycota (fungi imperfecti), and the lichens. The Deuteromycota includes all fungi which have lost the ability to reproduce sexually. Unlike other fungi, the lichens are not a single organism, but rather a symbiotic association between a fungus and an alga. The fungal member of the lichen is usually an ascomycete or basidiomycete, and the alga is usually a cyanobacterium or a chlorophyte. It should also be noted that some organisms carry the name of mold or fungus, but are not classified in the Kingdom Fungi. These include the slime molds and water molds. The slime molds are now known to be a mixture of three or four unrelated groups, and the oomycetes are now classified in the Chromista, with the diatoms and brown algae.
Track 5: Fungal Biotechnology
Fungi are used in many industrial processes, such as the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, polyhydric alcohols, pigments, lipids, and glycolipids. Some of these products are produced commercially while others are potentially valuable in biotechnology. Fungal secondary metabolites are extremely important to our health and nutrition and have tremendous economic impact. In addition to the multiple reaction sequences of fermentations, fungi are extremely useful in carrying out biotransformation processes. These are becoming essential to the fine-chemical industry in the production of single-isomer intermediates. Recombinant DNA technology, which includes yeasts and other fungi as hosts, has markedly increased markets for microbial enzymes. Molecular manipulations have been added to mutational techniques as a means of increasing titers and yields of microbial processes and in the discovery of new drugs. Today, fungal biology is a major participant in global industry. Moreover, the best is yet to come as genomes of additional species are sequenced at some level (cDNA, complete genomes, expressed sequence tags) and gene and protein arrays become available.
Track 6: Mycology Diversity
Fungi are organisms that assemble in complicated and dynamic communities. For the foremost half, fungi grow as a network of skinny filaments on the substrates like soil, wood, insect guts, living plant components, etc. which makes troublesome to find. Some species are refined in vitro; but the overwhelming majority isn't amenable to culturing, typically deed mycologists with very little to figure with through an experiment. Historically, taxonomists are answerable for enterprise the task of uncovering new fungi. Describing new species conjointly need the deposition of voucher specimens in official collections. The last decade witnessed a considerable increase in studies centred on fungal community ecology. Conducting fungal surveys may be a tedious semi-permanent undertaking and for an extended time mycologists relied on the fruit body occurrence or culturing of fungal isolates to document species incidence and site-specific fungal selection. Though such ways will offer necessary info, they have an inclination to produce incomplete community descriptions for the explanations represented in preceding sections. The most important practical teams of mycorrhizas fungi keep company with plant roots by creating a sheath of fungal tissue enclosing short root tips and a web with inward filament growth between plant root cells. For the foremost half, electronic warfare fungi belong to the phylum Basidiomycota and keep company with several plant families. The recent development of massively parallel DNA sequencing allowed for the group action of genomic and meta-genomic approaches owing to price reduction and wide avails and it's been welcomed by the fungal analysis community, because it permits rapid studies of deeper scope than are doable so far. Fungal communities will currently be represented supported a lot of sequences in an exceedingly very short timeframe and at a comparatively reduced price.
Track 7: Fungal Biofilms and Drug Resistance
During infection, fungi frequently transition to a biofilm lifestyle, proliferating as communities of surface-adherent aggregates of cells. Phenotypically, cells in a biofilm are distinct from free-floating cells. Their high tolerance of antifungals and ability to withstand host defenses are two characteristics that foster resilience. Biofilm infections are particularly difficult to eradicate and most available antifungals have minimal activity. Therefore, the discovery of novel compounds and innovative strategies to treat fungal biofilms is of great interest. Although many fungi have been observed to form biofilms, the most well-studied is Candida albicans. Animal models have been developed to simulate common Candida device-associated infections, including those involving vascular catheters, dentures, urinary catheters, and subcutaneous implants. Models have also reproduced the most common mucosal biofilm infections, oropharyngeal and vaginal candidiasis. These models incorporate the anatomical site, immune components, and fluid dynamics of clinical niches and have been instrumental in the study of drug resistance and investigation of novel therapies. This chapter describes the significance of fungal biofilm infections, the animal models developed for biofilm study, and how these models have contributed to development of new strategies for eradication of fungal biofilm infections.
The physiology and molecular biology of filamentous fungi which play a role as spoilage or toxin-producing organisms are investigated. The research focuses on the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms for mycotoxin biosynthesis at both molecular and physiological level. The emphasis of these investigations is on the influences of environmental conditions which lead to mycotoxin synthesis in the plant food product. The aim of this approach is to develop new procedures which prevent mycotoxin production in such foods. The influence of external factors such as substrate composition, temperature, water activity or pH value on mycotoxin gene activation, and hence mycotoxin production, are investigated by transcriptional analyses. The systematic transcription results obtained are used for the generation of models for predicting mycotoxin biosynthesis. Moreover, different key functions of signal cascades involved in mycotoxin synthesis are investigated in order to obtain information on the relationship between environmental parameters (in food) and gene regulation at transcriptional level. The presence of fungi in food has been both advantage and problems to food stores. Fungi can spoil large quantities of food and produce dangerous toxins that threaten human health; however, fungal spoilage in certain foods can produce a unique, highly prized food source and there are some very effective fungal derived medicines. Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food to stop or slow down food spoilage, loss of quality, edibility, or nutritional value and thus allow for longer food storage. Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi (such as yeasts), and other microorganisms, as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. Many food products are perishable by nature and require protection from spoilage during their preparation, storage and distribution to give them desired shelf-life. Because food products are now often sold in areas of the world far distant from their production sites, the need for extended safe shelf-life for these products has also expanded. The development of food preservation processes has been driven by the need to extend the shelf-life of foods. Food preservation is a continuous fight against microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. Several food preservation systems such as heating, refrigeration and addition of antimicrobial compounds can be used to reduce the risk of outbreaks of food poisoning; however, these techniques frequently have associated adverse changes in organoleptic characteristics and loss of nutrients.
Yeast infection treatments, which fail to respond to conventional anti-fungal drug treatments, have become increasingly reported, just like antibiotic resistant bacterial infections have over the years. There are many people who just don’t seem to respond to the azole class of drugs anymore, such as Fluconazole. This is partly due to the widespread, long-term use of azoles for treating and preventing yeast related health issues.
Recent studies have show that exposure to azole treatment decreases the antifungal activity of amphotericin B. Two other types of antifungal drugs have also been shown to be active against azole-resistant candida yeast infections, they are Voriconazole (Vfend) which showed enhanced activity against fluconazole-resistant candidiasis and another drug called caspofungin (Cancidas) which has also shown activity against azole-resistant strains of candidiasis. No doubt there will be side effects associated with these antifungals as well.
Because of the widespread antifungal drug resistance, taking any pharmaceutical drug to prevent a candida yeast infection is ridiculous and should not be encouraged, so the Candida Crusher natural approach towards yeast infection eradication is the safest and most effective approach, it is drug and side effect free and will ensure a complete and permanent eradication if followed carefully.
When the growth season has started and your cultivated plants are large enough for the mulching (green manuring) process to begin, you start adding the nettle substrate with the mycorrhizae spores to your cultivated area. First, apply the mulching material (whether lawn cuttings or other grasses) to the plant rows and, in humid weather, add to the rows some wide sprays of your microbiological inoculum. Before spreading your substrate, make sure to add to it cold water (as cold as you can get) for some 5 to 10 seconds, and then increase the temperature quickly to about 20oC. This is to activate the sporulation process, that is, to see to it that the mycorrhizae spores start to grow hyphae that will subsequently hook on to your cultivated plant roots.
Track 11: Application of Mycorrhizal Technology
Mycorrhizal technology can profitably be applied in different forest areas for better nutrient utilization and more effective land use. Soils in Bangladesh forest either poor in P and other essential nutrients or have an immobile form of P similar to other tropical soils .In such condition, mycorrhizal fungi can play an important role in improving the plant growth by increasing the supply to roots with mineral nutrients in the soil . The application of mycorrhizal fungi will be suitable for inoculating the plants in a limited area with small amount of inoculum of the fungi. In this system, the external hyphal network of mycorrhizal fungi plays an important role in nutrient uptake, especially for those ions that are not very mobile in soil solution
Track 12: Fungal toxins
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.
Track 13: Fungal Secondary Metabolites
Secondary metabolites are compounds produced by an organism that are not required for primary metabolic processes. Fungi produce an enormous array of secondary metabolites, some of which are important in industry. Many fungi express secondary metabolites that influence competitive outcomes.The compounds are expressed along with enzymes necessary for extracellular digestion. The precise function of many of these compounds in the natural environment, however, is unclear. fungi influence the organisms that interact with fungi leading to an anthropocentric interpretation of function in the fungus. Some metabolites, referred to as toxins, are compounds that have the potential to kill an organism at concentrations we might use.
Summary: American Mycology 2017 welcomes attendees, presenters, and exhibitors from all over the world to Atlanta, USA. We are delighted to invite you all to attend and register for the “Annual Congress on Mycology” which is going to be held during November 16-17, 2017 at Atlanta, USA. The organizing committee is gearing up for an exciting and informative conference program including plenary lectures, symposia, workshops on a variety of topics, poster presentations and various programs for participants from all over the world. We invite you to join us at the American Mycology-2017, where you will be sure to have a meaningful experience with scholars from around the world. All the members of American Mycology 2017 organizing committee look forward to meet you at Atlanta, USA.
For more details, please visit: http://mycology.cmesociety.com/
In the new bioeconomy, fungi play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs.
This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations: the scientific discipline mycology has built comprehensive understanding within fungal biodiversity, classification, evolution, genetics, physiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and nutrition. Applied mycology could not make progress without this platform. To unfold the full potentials of what fungi can do for both environment and man we need to strengthen the field of mycology on a global scale.
Why Atlanta ?
Atlanta is the capital of and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2015 population of 463,878. Atlanta is the cultural and economic centre of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5,522,942 people and the ninth largest metropolitan area in the United States. Atlanta is the county seat of Fulton County, and a small portion of the city extends eastward into DeKalb County.
Atlanta was established in 1837 at the intersection of two railroad lines, and the city rose from the ashes of the American Civil War to become a national centre of commerce. In the decades following the Civil Rights Movement, during which the city earned a reputation as "too busy to hate" for the relatively progressive views of some of its citizens and leaders compared to other cities in the Deep South Atlanta attained international prominence. Atlanta is the primary transportation hub of the South-eastern United States, via highway, railroad, and air, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport since 1998.
Atlanta is an "alpha-" or "world city”, exerting a significant impact upon commerce, finance, research, technology, education, media, art, and entertainment. It ranks 36th among world cities and 8th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $270 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors including logistics, professional and business services, media operations, and information technology. Topographically, Atlanta is marked by rolling hills and dense tree coverage. Revitalization of Atlanta's neighbourhoods, initially spurred by the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics, and culture.
How to Participate in Conference?
1. Speaker Participation:
A] Submit Your Abstract (http://mycology.cmesociety.com/abstract-submission )
B] Registration (Link: http://mycology.cmesociety.com/registration)
2. Delegate directly goes for registration
Track 1: Medical and Clinical Mycology
Track 2: Fungal Genetics
Track 3: Fungal Ecology
Track 4: Fungal Biotechnology
Track 5: Mycology Diversity
Track 6: Fungal Biofilms and Drug Resistance
Track 7: Mushrooms, Fungi & Medicine
Track 8: Food Infections and Prevention
Track 11: Application of Mycorrhizal Technology
Track 12: Fungal toxins
Track 13: Fungal Secondary Metabolites
Track 15: Business Visionary Investments Meet
The global market for human antifungal therapeutics reached nearly $11.6 billion in 2012 and $11.8 billion in 2013. This market is expected to grow to nearly $13.9 billion in 2018 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.2% over the five-year period from 2013 to 2018. Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2018.